Security monitoring

Somalia: Shocks, Agricultural Livelihoods and Food Security, Monitoring Report November 2021 – Somalia

The main shocks reported by the households surveyed included periods of drought, high food prices, illness or death of household members, loss of income, pests and diseases affecting both crops and livestock. , and high fuel prices. > The food security situation in Somalia remains dire, with 3.5 million people expected to face high levels of acute food insecurity until the end of 2021. In addition, 1.2 million children under 5 are likely to suffer from acute malnutrition, including nearly 213,400 who are likely to suffer from severe malnutrition by July 2022.

Inadequate rains have resulted in below-average Gu crop yields in the south and poor harvest prospects in agropastoral livelihood zones in the northwest (Food Security and Food Security Analysis Unit). nutrition [FSNAU] and Famine Early Warning Systems Network [FEWS NET], 2021).
More than half of crop-producing households reported lower production during the Gu season compared to a typical year.

Drought continues to ravage the country. After two failed growing seasons due to pasture and water shortages, drought is likely to persist into the Deyr (rainy) season, which lasts from October to December (FAO, 2021a; Intergovernmental Panel on Development – Climate Prediction and Application Center [ICPAC], 2021a;
ICPAC, 2021b).

Conflict and insecurity remain prevalent: 574,000 displacements occurred in 2021 alone, of which 413,000 were due to conflict, compounding pre-existing vulnerabilities (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], 2021a.

Difficulties reported by crop-growing households included lack of water for irrigation, plant pests and diseases, lack of insecticides, poor seed quality, crop loss and damage, and lack of water. agricultural inputs, including seeds, fertilizers and equipment.

Difficulties in selling crops included: low farm gate prices; reduced demand; high marketing costs induced by increased transport costs; crop damage and loss (due to flooding and wilting); and the difficulty in transforming the products.

Animal production challenges included: limited access to pasture and water, pests and diseases, limited access to veterinary services; high cost of food; lack of market access and conflict or insecurity.

Pastoralist households reported low prices for their produce, reduced demand, difficulty accessing slaughterhouses and high marketing costs. The lower prices can be attributed to the emaciation of livestock due to insufficient pasture and water resources (FAO, 2021a).

Among fishing households, 31 percent reported a drop in production compared to the previous year. The most frequently reported challenges included restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, difficulties in accessing fishing inputs and labour, difficulties in finding fish, and high fuel prices.

Household dietary diversity scores indicated that 22% of households had consumed 5-12 food groups in the previous 24 hours, 44% had consumed 3-4 food groups, and 34% had consumed 0-2 groups of food.

In the 30 days preceding the survey, 19% of respondents used stress-level coping strategies, 45% engaged in crisis-level coping strategies, and 24% used stress-level coping strategies. coping strategies at the emergency level.

Based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), 47 percent of respondents experienced moderate or severe food insecurity, and 17 percent experienced severe food insecurity. According to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) thresholds for the FIES, 34 percent had scores corresponding to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) food insecurity levels. CPI).

Ninety-four percent of respondents expressed the need for help. Main needs included inputs, veterinary services, water for irrigation, cash, support for animal production, marketing support, storage facilities, access to land and rehabilitation , and information on how to minimize COVID-19 infections.